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buds, fruits

Natural populations

Eucalyptus mannifera has two subspecies [1,2]: 

Both are medium-sized trees up to 15–25 m in tall, but often smaller on adverse sites. Subsp. mannifera often grows on the skeletal soils of plateaus and hill slopes, while subsp. gullickii is usually found in swamps.

Flowering and seeds

This species flowers mainly during November to March [3,4]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following spring. There are about 430 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 7 days if grown at 25°C with no pretreatment required [4].

Cultivation and uses

Eucalyptus mannifera has potential for site remediation of cold, frost-prone sites that have skeletal clayey soils. It is an attractive tree of relatively small stature which makes it well-suited to cultivation in urban areas as a low maintenance park or street tree. This is a relatively slow growing species. Natural stands are valued by apiculturalists for wintering hives [3].

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 600-1600 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: uniform or winter
Mean annual temperature: 9-15 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 21-28 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: -3-4 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): up to 20 or greater than 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C) or severe or heavy (greater than -5°C)
Altitude: 100-1160 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant or known to be tolerant of protracted droughts
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range or tolerates heavy frosts colder than -5°C
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay), light to medium clay (35-50% clay) or loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm)
Drainage:  well-drained
Salinity: non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: clayey
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen, tree 10-20 m tall, tree 5-10 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: slow
Coppicing ability: lignotuberous
Root system: shallow and spreading
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: low or moderate
Uses
Potential farm use: good ornamental attributes or shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production or pollen has value for apiculture
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant or ideal maintenance free street tree
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds
Potentially undesirable attributes
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Clemson A (1985) Honey and Pollen Flora. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

[4] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

Internet links

Australian National Botanic Gardens: http://www.anbg.gov.au/gnp/gnp7/eucalyptus-mannifera.html

PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Eucalyptus~mannifera

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