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Natural populations

Eucalyptus macrorhyncha is a woodland tree up to 20 m tall which is common on the slopes and highlands of the Great Dividing Range in Victoria and New South Wales [1,2]. There are outliers near Griffith in New South Wales and a small, disjunct occurrence near Clare in South Australia. It grows on range of soil types which are usually clayey but well-drained.

Flowering and seeds

This species flowers during January to April-May [1,3,4]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following autumn. There are about 500 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 10 days if grown at 15°C with no pretreatment required [4].

Cultivation and uses

Eucalyptus macrorhyncha is adapted to relatively poor soils and cold conditions. Remnant trees on agricultural land provide valuable shelter and shade for stock. While it has value for apiculture, E. macrorhyncha is not considered a reliable honey producer as it is very sensitive to adverse weather conditions during flowering [3]. The wood of this species is moderately durable and has been used for general building construction and for fencing [1].

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 600-1500 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: summer, uniform or winter
Mean annual temperature: 9-18 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 25-31 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: -1-5 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): up to 20 or greater than 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C) or severe or heavy (greater than -5°C)
Altitude: 150-1000 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant or known to be tolerant of protracted droughts
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range or tolerates heavy frosts colder than -5°C
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay) or light to medium clay (35-50% clay)
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm) or moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  well-drained
Salinity: non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in texture: clayey
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall, or sometimes greater than 20 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: moderate or slow
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding; lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep or shallow and spreading
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites
Shade tolerance: grows best in full sunlight
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: low to moderate
Uses
Potential farm use: good for fence posts, shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds
Wood products: craftwood (for turnery etc.), flooring (including parquetry), heavy construction, panelling, posts (including fencing), speciality timber for quality furniture, termite resistant
Potentially undesirable attributes
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants
Susceptibility to disease or predation: root fungi (eg, Phytophthora, Armillaria)

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Clemson A (1985) Honey and Pollen Flora. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

[4] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

Internet links

eFloraSA Electronic Flora of South Australia:  http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/texhtml.cgi?form=speciesfacts&family=&genus=eucalyptus&species=macrorhyncha&iname=&submit=Search

PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Eucalyptus~macrorhyncha 

Victorian Department of Primary Industry: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/ [Search site as several documents may relate to this species.]

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