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Warkworth, NSW

Munghorn Gap, NSW

Dalby, Qld

Natural populations

Callitris endlicheri occurs along the Great Dividing Range and adjacent western slopes of south eastern Australia, from the New South Wales-Victorian border, north to south east Queensland [1]. Several isolated populations occur on ranges near central Queensland, to the north of its main distribution. This is usually a conical single-stemmed tree up to 12-20 m tall with fine lateral branching. As it prefers ridges, plateaux, hills and tablelands, C. endlicheri is usually found on relatively shallow stony soils, often on steep slopes [1].

Flowering and seeds

This species is monoecious with male and female flowers on the same plant and it flowers (strobili) are present during September to Feburary [1]. The woody cones persist on trees in an indehiscent state for lengthy periods and seeds are wind dispersed. There are about 15 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 15 days if grown at 25°C with no pretreatment required [2].

Cultivation and uses

Callitris endlicheri is a fire sensitive native conifer. While relatively slow growing, it has a reputation for being frost tolerant and moderately drought tolerant [1]. Callitris endlicheri can be grown on poor sandy sites that are prone to frosts and protracted dry periods. Its form and foliage make particularly well-suited as a windbreak, however, young trees are particularly susceptible to fire. Callitris endlicheri has been successfully cultivated overseas, particularly in African countries, where initial slow growth has been a characteristic trait of this species [1]. The wood of this species is valued for its durability, termite resistance and has been used as fencing, flooring, panelling, furniture, charcoal and fuelwood [1].

Key descriptors:

Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall (mm): 350-800 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern:summer or uniform
Mean annual temperature: 15-15 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 26-34 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 0-3 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): up to 20 or greater than 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C) or heavy (greater than -5°C)
Altitude: 100-1050 metres
Tolerance of climate extremes
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant or known to be tolerant of protracted droughts
Fire: killed by damaging fire does not regenerate foliage
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range or tolerates heavy frosts colder than -5°C
Wind: known or has attributes to make an excellent windbreak
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm) or moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  well-drained
Salinity: non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: sand
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: slow
Coppicing ability: nil or negligible
Root system: moderate to deep or shallow and spreading
Erosion control potential: excellent for sandy sites
Windbreak potential: excellent (known or has good attributes)
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate
Potentially undesirable attributes
Fire sensitivity:killed by severe fires (seeder)
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants
Uses
Potential farm use: excellent windbreak, good for fence posts, good ornamental attributes, shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: pollen has value for apiculture, high tannin content in bark
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant or suitable as a screen or hedge
Wood products: craftwood (for turnery etc.), flooring (including parquetry), high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, light construction, poles (building, transmission, piling), posts (including fencing), speciality timber for quality furniture, termite resistant

References

[1] Doran JC, Turnbull JW (eds.) (1997) Australian Trees and Shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra [ACIAR books online: http://www.aciar.gov.au/publication/MN024 Accessed 24/02/2008]

[2] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf Accessed March 2008]

Internet links

PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Callitris~endlicheri

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