Boggabri, NSW

Natural populations

Allocasuarina luehmannii has a wide latitudinal range across eastern Australia. It extends from near Mareeba in north Queensland, across much of south east Queensland, the western slopes of New South Wales, to northwestern Victoria and the far south east of South Australia [1]. This species is typically a medium-sized tree 9-15 m tall. It grows on a range of soil types, mainly sandy loams, and is usually found on lower parts of the terrain.

Flowering and seeds

This species is dioecious with male and female flowers on separate plants which flowers in spring [1,2]. Mature seeds have been collected in December and also March to May in South Australia [3]. There are over 200 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 7 days if grown at 25°C with no pretreatment required [2].

Cultivation and uses

Allocasuarina luehmannii is a nitrogen fixing tree, that can be cultivated on a range of sites. Early growth is reported to be relatively fast but it is generally considered a relatively slow growing species [1]. It is considered moderately salt tolerant, produces excellent fuelwood and is useful as a windbreak or shelterbelt species [4]. The wood of this species has been used for turnery, flooring, fencing and roof shingles and is valued for use in furniture [1].

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall (mm): 300-1500 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: summer, uniform or winter
Mean annual temperature: 12-24 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 26-36 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 0-16 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): frost free or more or less frost free or up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 0-800 metres
Tolerance of climate extremes
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant or known to be tolerant of protracted droughts
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Wind: known or has attributes to make an excellent windbreak
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5), 2. neutral (6.5-7.5) or alkaline (greater than 7.5)
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm) or moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  well-drained
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline or non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils 
Extremes in pH: acidity or alkalinity
Extremes in texture: sand
Salinity: moderate (-8 dS m-1), nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall or tree 5-10 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: fast, moderate or slow
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding
Root system: shallow and spreading, fixes nitrogen via root symbiot or forms root suckers
Erosion control potential: excellent for sandy sites
Windbreak potential: excellent (known or has good attributes) or tolerates salty coastal winds
Shade tolerance: grows best in full sunlight
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate to high
Potential farm use: excellent windbreak, good for fence posts or shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: pollen has value for apiculture
Urban use: suitable as a screen or hedge
Wood products: craftwood (for turnery etc.), flooring (including parquetry), high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, light construction, panelling, posts (including fencing), speciality timber for quality furniture
Potentially undesirable attributes
Growth habit: mod. to strong propensity to root sucker, shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants
Weediness: high potential based on its biology


[1] Doran JC, Turnbull JW (eds.) (1997) Australian Trees and Shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra [ACIAR books online: Accessed 24/02/2008]

[2] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at  Accessed March 2008]

[3] Bonney N (2003) What Seed Is That? A guide to the identification, collection, germination and establishment of native plant species for central southern Australian landscapes. Neville Bonney, Tantanoola.

[4] Marcar NE, Crawford DF (2004) Trees for Saline Landscapes. RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, Canberra.

Internet links

ABRS Species Bank:

eFloraSA Electronic Flora of South Australia:

PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales:

Victoria—Department of Primary Industry: Search site as several documents may relate to this species.