Glossary

Adaptive variation

variation that occurs among different populations of a species growing under different environmental conditions. Different populations adapt to these conditions (salinity, aspect, temperature etc).

Biodiversity
- biological diversity; the diversity of life of all types. Biodiversity occurs at the genetic, species and ecosystem scales.

Canopy-stored seed
seed that is stored in fruits held on the foliage or canopy of the plant. Seed is dropped regularly or in response to particular environmental conditions (such as fire).

Connectivity

the elements of a landscape that allow organisms and their genes to move across it.

Ecosystems

An interacting network of groups of organisms together with their nonliving or physical environment.

Ecosystem function

Processes that are necessary for the self-maintenance of an Ecosystem such as primary production, nutrient cycling, decomposition, etc

Enhancement (of vegetation)
Actions that improve the condition of native vegetation or its habitat value, such as revegetation, adding water, adding nesting boxes etc.

Fragments

small often isolated patches of native vegetation retained after clearing or major disturbance

Functional diversity

having a range of ecosystem functions present or available


Genetic pollution

the undesired flow of genes from an introduced population into a remnant population.


Inbred
progeny resulting from crossing of closely related individuals, or from the flowers from the same plant. Results in lower fitness for species that are obligate outcrossers and with mixed mating systems.

Knockdown herbicide
A herbicide that kills living plants. Plants are sprayed or wiped with the herbicide while they are actively growing

Matrix
that part of the landscape that is not occupied by native vegetation. Usually refers to fragmented or relictual native vegetation, agricultural land and urban areas.

Mixed Mating Systems
Plant mating systems where successful mating occurs between unrelated individuals and between flowers on the same plant (selfing)

Morphology
The physical expression of a plants genetic makeup - what it looks like.

Natural regeneration
the process where plants naturally disperse their seeds, and new plants grow from these seeds germinating on site.

Obligate outcrossers
Mating system of some plants where male and female flowers must be on seperate plants or no seed will be set.

Patch (native vegetation)
Non-technical term used to describe stands of native vegetation of a few hectares or less in area.

Physiology

the functions and activities of life or of living matter (as tissues, or cells) and of the physical and chemical phenomena involved

Propagules
Organs of reproduction. Seeds are the most obvious, but also cuttings, spores, root suckers etc.

Provenance
the location where seed originates

Regional extinction
plants or animals no longer occur in a region where they once occurred, even though the species may be common in other parts of its range.

Relative abundance
The abundance of a plant species relative to other plant species at a particular location.

Redundancy

where some ecological functions are performed by more than one organism.

Remnant vegetation
native vegetation remaining or regenerated after clearing and other destructive removal. Distinct from replanted vegetation.

Residual herbicide
herbicide that kills emerging seedlings and prevents germination. It is usually applied to bare soil and has a lasting effect.

Resilience

the ability of an ecosystem to maintain diversity, integrity and ecological processes following disturbance.

Restoration

Ecological restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed. (SER, 2008)


Scalping
scraping or grading away the topsoil in order to remove the soil seedbank (including weed seeds)

Selfing
Mating system where crosses between flowers on the same plant are successful

Soil seedbank
Seeds that are stored in the soil. Seeds may be stored for short or long periods.

Structure

The physical and spatial arrangement of an ecosystem and its components


Topographic position

The position of a site in the landscape in relation to the surrounding topography (e.g. hilltop, valley, slope etc)


Vegetation condition

the health and physical state of a vegetation community in relation to a benchmark state


Viability
having enough individuals to sustain the population and its genetic diversity

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